A profile of Lebanon

An image of Lebanon

Lebanon has been a significant commercial hub for the Middle East due to its high literacy rate and traditional mercantile culture.

In addition, despite its small size, it has frequently been the focal point of Middle Eastern conflicts due to its borders with Syria and Israel as well as its particularly intricate communal makeup.

In a nation that has long served as a haven for the region's minorities, the majority population is made up of Shia Muslims, Sunni Muslims, Christians, and Druze.

  • with capital letters. Beirut.
  • Area:. 10,452 sq km.
  • Population:. 5.22 million.
  • Languages:. French and Arabic.
  • Typical lifespan: 76 years for men and 80 years for women.

Vacant office of the presidency.

The position is currently unfilled. Najib Mikati, the prime minister, declared he would not assume the presidency after Michel Aoun vacated it in 2022 because the constitution of Lebanon, which forbids an interim president, would delegate those powers to the council of ministers as a whole.

Najib Mikati is in charge.

Lebanese PM Najib Mikati

The richest man in Lebanon, Najib Mikati, took office as prime minister twice before returning in September 2021 to lead the government.

His appointment put an end to months of political gridlock as the nation battled a crumbling economy and nearly two years of protests calling for comprehensive political reform.

Since Hassan Diab's resignation in August 2020, when Beirut port and the surrounding area were completely destroyed by a huge explosion, Lebanon has been without a government.

Beirut restaurant with TV screen

The pluralism and divisions of the nation are reflected in the developed, vibrant, and diverse broadcasting scene in Lebanon.

The first Arab nation to allow commercial radio and television was this one. These outlets control the local media landscape and broadcast some of the most controversial TV talk shows.

A significant information source now includes news websites.

Downtown Beirut
After being destroyed during the civil war, much of downtown Beirut has been rebuilt.

Several significant dates in the history of Lebanon include:.

1516-1918 . Lebanon was a component of the Ottoman Empire.

1920 . - France is given the mandate by the League of Nations to administer Lebanon and Syria, forming the State of Greater Lebanon out of the provinces of Mount Lebanon, north Lebanon, south Lebanon, and the Bekaa.

1926. - A constitution is approved by the Lebanese Representative Council, and the French-mandated unified Lebanese Republic is proclaimed.

1944 . - France consents to give the Lebanese government more authority.

1958 . President Camille Chamoune requests that the US send troops to Lebanon in order to protect its independence due to growing opposition that threatens to erupt into a civil war. US Marines are sent.

1967 . - Although Lebanon is not a direct participant in the Arab-Israeli conflict, it will be impacted by its aftermath when Palestinians use Lebanon as a base for attacks against Israel.

1975 . - Phalangist gunmen ambush a bus in Beirut's Ayn-al-Rummanah neighborhood, killing 27 people, mostly Palestinians, and citing guerrilla attacks on a nearby church as their justification. The civil war in Lebanon that lasted from 1975 to 1990 is brought on by these clashes.

1976 . Thousands of Palestinians are killed during a siege of the Tel al-Zaatar camp by Christian militias in Beirut that are allied with Syria. Syrian troops enter Lebanon to restore peace but also to control the Palestinians.

1978 . - Following a Palestinian assault, Israel launches a significant invasion of southern Lebanon. It abandons everything except for a small border region, which it turns over to the predominantly Christian South Lebanon Army militia acting as its proxies.

1982 . - After a Palestinian splinter group attempted to kill Israel's UK ambassador, Israel launches a full-scale invasion of Lebanon.

1982 . - The assassination of Bachir Gemayel, a pro-Israel president-elect. Israel has taken over West Beirut. In the camps of Sabra and Shatila, phalangist militia kills thousands of Palestinians. Arrival of the US, French, and Italian peacekeeping force in Beirut.

1983 . - In April, a suicide attack on the US embassy claimed 63 lives, and in October, a similar attack on the headquarters of the peacekeepers claimed 241 US and 58 French lives. In 1984, US troops are withdrawn.

1985 . A "security zone" in the south is where the majority of Israeli troops remain.

1988 - . After contested presidential elections, outgoing President Amine Gemayel installs a transitional military administration in East Beirut under the leadership of Maronite Commander Michel Aoun. West Beirut's rival government, led by Prime Minister Selim el-Hoss, is largely Muslim.

1989 . - A Charter of National Reconciliation is approved by parliament in Taif, Saudi Arabia, increasing the proportion of Muslim MPs and giving the cabinet most of the president's power.

1990 . Aoun runs away after a Syrian airstrike on the Presidential Palace in Baabda. The civil war is formally over now.

1991 . - All militias, with the exception of the potent Shia organization Hezbollah, are to be dissolved, according to the National Assembly. The PLO is defeated and the Lebanese army seizes control of Sidon, a port in the south.

1992 . Rich businessman Rafik Hariri is elected prime minister following the first elections since 1972.

2000 -. South Lebanon is abandoned by Israel.

2005 . - A car bomb in Beirut kills former prime minister Rafik Hariri, igniting anti-Syrian protests and a political upheaval.

2006. - Hezbollah abducts two Israeli soldiers, prompting Israel to strike. The 34-day war has resulted in significant damage and high civilian casualties. Lebanese army troops are deployed along the southern border for the first time in decades after the UN peacekeeping force.

2008 . - For the first time since both nations' independence, Lebanon and Syria establish diplomatic ties.

2012 . - Clashes between Sunni Muslims and Alawites take place in Tripoli and Beirut as a result of the Syrian civil war, which started in March 2011, spreading into Lebanon.

2013 . - The military wing of Hezbollah is designated as a terrorist organization by the European Union.

2014. - The UN estimates that there are currently more than a million Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

2020 . - After months of demonstrations against currency devaluations, the effects of the Covid-19 lockdown, and rioting in response to a significant chemical explosion in Beirut's port, the government resigns.

Lebanese coast scene
For the Lebanese economy, leisure and tourism are crucial.

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