In the high Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain, there is a tiny principality called Andorra.
Tourism, which contributes about 80% of GDP, is the economic engine driving this country's exceptional prosperity. Winter sports, a warm summer climate, and duty-free shopping attract an estimated 10 million visitors annually.
The nation's banking industry has partial tax haven status.
The president of France and the bishop of Urgell in Spain jointly ruled Andorra for more than 700 years.
Parliamentary government was established by the 1993 adoption of the first Andorran Constitution. Later, it became a member of the Council of Europe and the United Nations.
The roles of joint co-princes and heads of state between the French president and the bishop of Urgell are still present, but they are honorific.
Although Andorra is not a member of the EU, it has a unique relationship with it and uses the euro.
- with capital letters. A. L. Andorra.
- Area:. 467 sq km.
- Population:. 77,500.
- Language:. Catalan.
- Typical lifespan: (Men) 84 years old; (Women) 80 years old.
Co-heads of state are the president of France and the bishop of Urgell, Spain.
Xavier Espot Zamora is the ruler.
Following the April 2019 general elections, Xavier Espot Zamora became the new prime minister.
Many reforms have been implemented by the government in recent years. Political parties and labor unions were made legal, and freedom of assembly and worship were also protected by law.
A significant issue in a nation where only a small percentage of residents are legitimate citizens is the redefinition of what constitutes Andorran citizenship.
Legislators unanimously decided to legalize same-sex marriage in July 2022.
The proximity to France and Spain has had an impact on the media landscape in Andorra.
Andorrans can access broadcasts from both nations, and Sud Radio, a potent station that broadcast to southwest France for many years, was based in Andorra.
Radio Nacional d'Andorra runs a number of radio stations, and there is a public service TV station called TVA.
Important dates in Andorra's history include:
AD 803. - The area that is now Andorra was liberated from the Moors by Emperor Charlemagne, who is also credited with giving the locals a charter. Charles II, Charlemagne's grandson, grants the Count of Urgell of Spain Andorra following Charlemagne's passing.
1133 . - The bishop of Urgell receives Andorra from the count of Urgell.
1278. After disagreements between the Spanish bishops of Urgell and the French heirs to the Urgel countship, Andorra agreed to "pareage" with both a French and a Spanish prince.
1419. - To address local issues, the Council of the Land is established as an elected body.
1607. The bishop of Urgell and the head of state of France are made co-princes by a royal decree in France.
1936-39. - French soldiers sent to Andorra to guard against Spanish Civil War repercussions.
1939-45. - Andorra, which remained neutral throughout the Second World War, served as a crucial route for smuggling goods from Vichy France into neutral Spain.
1970. - The right to vote for women.
1982 . - The Catalan word for "Govern" (first executive branch of government) assumes office. The Council of the Land chooses its leader.
1990 . - The EU and Andorra sign a customs union.
1993 . - First constitution approved by popular vote. Two princes' feudal rights are diminished by a document. There are new executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government established. The United Nations welcomes Andorra. Spanish and French embassies are opened.
2005. - The EU cooperation agreement goes into effect.
2009. - Andorra consents to relax banking confidentiality regulations to make it simpler for other nations to pursue tax evaders and money launderers.
2013 . - Under pressure from the European Union to combat tax evasion, Andorra enacts its first personal income tax.
2016 . - Plans to no longer keep EU citizens' bank accounts private are approved by the parliament.