Today, Qatar, once among the poorest Gulf states, is among the richest nations in the area.
As the first Arab and Muslim-majority country to host the 2022 Fifa World Cup, Qatar has used the proceeds from its substantial gas reserves to finance its regional and international ambitions.
Not all of its regional interventions are well-liked by other Arab leaders, such as its support for the Islamist movements in Egypt and Syria as well as the Palestinian Hamas faction in Gaza. Saudi Arabia spearheaded efforts to isolate the nation in 2017 in an effort to pressure it to end its alleged support for radical and Islamist groups.
Additionally, it has issues at home. The treatment of migrant workers is frequently criticized by rights organizations, but oil money funds an all-encompassing welfare state with many services being provided for free or at substantial discounts.
- Capital:. Doha.
- Area: . 11,581 sq km.
- Population:. $2.07 billion.
- Language:. Arabic.
- Typical lifespan: 79 years for men and 82 years for women.
The ruler is Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani.
In June 2013, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani peacefully succeeded his father as ruler.
He received his education in Britain, where his father also received it. He attended Sherborne School in Dorset and Sandhurst, the British Military Academy.
Although Sheikh Tamim has prioritized diversifying the economy and spending on the country's infrastructure, much of his time in office has been marked by conflict with Qatar's Gulf Arab neighbors over the country's support for radical and Islamist groups and its efforts to uphold friendly ties with Iran.
As part of Qatar's effort to increase its international profile, he has promoted sport.
Qatar has improved its reputation in the media thanks to influential pan-Arab and global TV broadcaster Al-Jazeera, which is owned by the government.
In particular, Al Jazeera, which is viewed as a tool of regional influence, is one area in which Qatar invests heavily.
Al-Jazeera and the domestic media, however, refrain from criticizing the state and government.
Several significant anniversaries in Qatar's history are as follows:.
1825 . - The Al-Thani dynasty takes over Qatar, which is trying to break away from Bahraini suzerainty.
1871 . - The Al-Thanis acknowledge Ottoman rule as superior.
1913. - The Ottoman Empire grants the British request to remove its troops from Qatar.
1916 . - A deal was signed that gives Britain control over Qatar's foreign policy in exchange for protection.
1939 . - Oil reserves were found. World War Two delays the beginning of the exploitation process, but oil eventually takes the place of pearling and fishing as Qatar's primary source of income.
1950s . The development and modernization of Qatar's infrastructure are supported by oil revenues.
1971. - Qatar gains complete independence from the UK.
1972 . - Following infighting within the ruling family, Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani seizes control in a palace coup.
1990 . After Iraq invades Kuwait, Qatar declares that it will permit foreign forces to occupy its territory. Later, Qatari forces take part in Kuwait's liberation.
1995 . - Sheikh Khalifa was overthrown by his son Hamad in an unbloody coup.
1996. - Qatar establishes Al-Jazeera TV internationally, revolutionizing Arab broadcasting.
2003 . - The US Central Command forward base in Qatar serves as the command and control center for the US-led military campaign in Iraq.
2005 . - The first written constitution takes effect, establishing a few democratic reforms.
2017 . - A diplomatic crisis as a result of Saudi Arabia's Arab transport blockade, which is intended to pressure Qatar to sever its ties to radical and Islamist organizations and break diplomatic relations with Iran. A resolution between Saudi Arabia and Qatar puts an end to the crisis in 2021.