Armenia is a landlocked nation in the Caucasus that shares borders with Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, and Azerbaijan to the east. It has a history that predates that of most of Europe.
Armenia was quickly drawn into a bloody conflict with Azerbaijan over the mostly Armenian-populated Nagorno-Karabakh region after gaining independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
Armenia was one of the first civilizations to adopt Christianity, and its first churches were established in the fourth century. It frequently alternated between Byzantine, Persian, Mongol, or Turkish rule in later centuries, as well as intervals of independence.
- : capital. Yerevan.
- Area:. 29,743 sq km.
- Population:. three billion.
- Language:. in Armenian.
- a reasonable lifespan. (Men) 72 years; (Women) 79 years.
Nikol Pashinyan serves as prime minister.
Nikol Pashinyan, the leader of the opposition, was chosen as the country's new prime minister by parliament in May 2018 after organizing weeks of large-scale demonstrations against the ruling party.
Through an unprecedented campaign of civil disobedience, he had increased pressure on the Republican Party, which resulted in Serzh Sargsyan, a veteran leader who had served as president for ten years, shockingly resigning a week later.
In order to overthrow the Republican Party's parliamentary majority in December 2018, Mr. Pashinyan called a snap election, which his My Step Alliance easily won.
The strategic alliance between Armenia and Russia will be upheld, according to Mr. Pashinyan.
However, he came under fire in late 2020 after accepting a ceasefire mediated by Moscow with Azerbaijan, which had made significant progress in its battle to retake Nagorno-Karabakh and the Azerbaijani territory surrounding it.
Armen Sargsyan is the president.
When Armenia switched from a presidential to a parliamentary system of government in March 2018, Armen Sargsyan was elected as president.
From November 1996 to March 1997, he held the position of prime minister for a brief period in between assignments as ambassador to the UK and other diplomatic positions in Europe.
In a 2015 referendum, voters approved constitutional changes that reduced the president's authority and increased that of the prime minister. Critics viewed this as a ploy to keep Serzh Sargsyan, the outgoing president, in power as prime minister.
The major TV stations became largely free of state control in 2018, which had a significant impact on the media.
However, political polarization and a lack of financial independence continue to be problems for the media.
Television is the most popular medium, though less so with younger audiences.
Online forums for politics can be found. The most popular social network is Facebook.
Several significant occasions in Armenian history include:.
6th millennium BC. - first Armenian settlement in the Achaemenid empire, under the Orontids.
after 190 BC. - Kingdom gains complete autonomic status.
95-66BC. - Armenia rises to prominence as the most powerful kingdom east of the Roman Republic under Tigranes the Great.
301AD. Tiridates III establishes Christianity as the official religion in Armenia.
428 . - The Sasanian empire includes Armenia.
c, 660-750. - The Umayyad Caliphate takes over Christian Armenia.
884. - Under Ashot I, Armenia reclaims its independence.
1045. - Armenia is subjugated by the Byzantine Empire.
1071. - After the Battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk Turks vanquish the Byzantines and take control of Armenia.
twelve centuries. - Armenians expel the Seljuks and found a principality that is somewhat independent.
1230s. - The Mongols sack Armenia.
the 16th century. - The Safavid dynasty of Iran and the Ottoman Empire fought for control of Armenia.
1813-1828 . - After the Russo-Persian Wars of 1804–13 and 1826–28, Iran was compelled to hand over eastern Armenia to Russia; western Armenia remained under Ottoman rule.
1890s. - Dashnaks, also known as the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, started to operate within the Ottoman Empire. Both political reform and the larger objective of establishing Armenia's independence are on their agenda.
1894-96 . - In response to mounting political pressure from Armenia, Ottoman sultan Abdul Hamid II organizes massacres of Armenians, killing between 80,000 and 300,000.
1915-1917. - The Ottoman government massacres or exiles between 300,000 and 1.5 million Armenians from their native Anatolia to modern-day Syria. The killings are viewed as a genocide by Armenia and many historians. Turkey claims that both sides were responsible for the killings and disputes the Armenians' claims of genocide. The subject is still very delicate.
1918 . - Armenia gains independence after the Ottoman Empire is defeated in World War One, but it is absorbed into the Soviet Union four years later.
1989 . - Azerbaijan is where the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh starts.
1991 . Armenia proclaims its independence.
1994 . - A cease-fire agreement is signed by Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Nagorno-Karabakh. The Karabakh region is still governed by ethnic Armenians.
2009. - A provisional roadmap for normalizing diplomatic ties is agreed upon by Armenia and Turkey, but the agreement is not ratified.
2015 . - Armenia, which opted not to sign an EU Association Agreement, now formally joins the Russian-led Eurasian Customs Union.
2018 . - After widespread protests, the Republican Party's long reign comes to an end.
2020 . - Azerbaijan retakes a sizable portion of the area surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh. In the conflict, about 3,000 Azerbaijani soldiers and 4,000 Armenian soldiers perish.
A new ceasefire mediated by Moscow is being monitored by Russian peacekeepers, who are also being sent to ensure safe passage through the Lachin region, or "Lachin corridor," which separates Nagorno-Karabakh from Armenia.
2022 . September: Along the Armenia-Azerbaijan border, fighting breaks out between Armenian and Azerbaijani troops, with roughly 50 soldiers from each side losing their lives.