The second-largest island in the world, where Papua New Guinea is located, is subject to earthquakes, tidal waves, and volcanic activity.
With more than 800 different languages, it is the linguistically diverse nation in the world.
Approximately 80% of people reside in rural areas. Many people in the remote mountainous interior depend on subsistence agriculture to support their way of life in a non-monetarized economy.
The people of Bougainville decided to secede from Papua New Guinea by 2027 in a vote that took place in 2019, but the central government has said that it retains the final say.
- with capital letters. In Port Moresby.
- Area:. 462,840 sq km.
- Population:. 8%9% million.
- Languages:. 851 regional languages in addition to English, Hiri Motu, and Tok Pisin.
- the length of life. (Men) 63 years; (Women) 68 years.
Charles III is the head of state, and a Governor-General is he.
James Marape serves as the premier.
In May 2019, following Peter O'Neill's resignation, the parliament chose James Marape to serve as prime minister.
This came after Mr. Marape's own resignation as finance minister in April over a contentious gas deal.
Following parliamentary elections in July 2022, he was re-elected as prime minister.
Because of its dispersed, remote settlements and low literacy rate, Papua New Guinea depends heavily on radio.
A national network and regional stations are run by the government. Reporters Without Borders (RSF) claims that the media operate in a largely free environment.
Only Port Moresby and the provincial capitals have significant television coverage.
There are a few significant dates in the history of Papua New Guinea:.
50,000BC. New Guinea's first settlers are believed to have come from Asia.
c. 7000BC. - In one of the few places in the world where people independently domesticated plants, agriculture independently develops in the highlands of New Guinea.
500BC. - Significant migration of Austronesian-speaking populations occurs in New Guinea's coastal areas.
1526 . - The first European visitor is Jorge de Meneses, a Portuguese sailor. Ilhas dos Papuas, or "land of fuzzy-haired people," is the name he gives to one of the islands.
1546 . - Because the inhabitants of the other main island resemble those of Guinea in Africa, Spanish explorer Inigo Ortiz de Retes gave the island its name, New Guinea.
1800 . - There are significant trade networks operating throughout New Guinea, with the Kula ring, a ceremonial exchange system, being especially extensive.
1860s . - The Bismarck Archipelago is frequently visited by American and European whalers.
1884 . - Germany annexes New Guinea's northern region, and Britain establishes a protectorate over the country's southeast.
1884 . - While Germany annexes the northern portion of New Guinea as German New Guinea, Britain establishes a protectorate over the south-east of the island as British New Guinea (BNG).
1895 . - The Mambare River contains gold. Conflict between locals and miners results from a gold rush.
1906 . - British New Guinea was handed over to the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia and given the name Territory of Papua.
1914 . During World War One, Australian troops are stationed in German New Guinea.
1921 . German New Guinea is administered independently from the Territory of Papua and is given to Australia by the League of Nations as a mandate.
1920s . - Another gold rush is sparked by a significant gold discovery along the Bulolo river.
1942-45. - The campaign in New Guinea. Japanese troops are advancing south and east into portions of both territories. The Pacific War's key turning point was when the Allies drove the Japanese back with victories at Milne Bay, on the Kokoda Trail, and in the area of Buna and Gona. Approximately 216,000 servicemen from Japan, Australia, and the US lose their lives in battle.
1949. - The Territory of Papua and New Guinea, under joint control with Australia, is established.
1961 . - The first indigenous population-participated elections.
1963. - The UN gives Indonesia control over West New Guinea (currently Papua).
1964. - The Legislative Council is replaced by a 64-member House of Assembly, with indigenous representatives winning the majority of seats for the first time.
1971. - The nation now goes by the abbreviation PNG.
1973. - The border location between Indonesia and PNG has been agreed upon.
1975. - Papua New Guinea formally separates from Australia. .
1975-76. - The Bougainville island separatist uprising. The constitution has been changed to give Bougainville and other districts quasi-provincial status.
1977. – The initial parliamentary elections following independence.
1988-97 . - Separatist rebels on Bougainville launch a protracted war against the ruling party. The Panguna copper mine, which is owned by Australia, is closed down by the recently formed Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA), which is concerned about environmental damage and angry that profits are leaving the island. The fighting claims the lives of about 20,000 people.
1994. - With a number of Bougainville secessionist leaders, PM Sir Julius Chan signs an agreement that establishes a transitional government in Bougainville. Leaders of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army do not sign, but they still fight for total independence.
1997. - In Bougainville, the government hires Sandline International mercenaries to assist government forces, igniting an army uprising and causing civil unrest.
1997. The decade-long armed conflict by Bougainville separatists has come to an end with the Burnham Truce. To monitor adherence, the Truce Monitoring Group is established by the regional nations.
1998 . - In Bougainville, a permanent cease-fire was agreed upon by leaders of the secessionist movement. The Truce Monitoring Group is replaced by the Peace Monitoring Group, which is led by Australia.
2001 . - The Bougainville Peace Agreement is signed in Arawa, guaranteeing a referendum on Bougainville's future political status in ten to fifteen years.
2005 . - The first autonomous government in Bougainville is chosen. Joseph Kabui, an ex-separatist rebel, is elected president.
2019. - By a wide margin, Bougainville approves independence in a referendum that will take place by 2027. The governments of Bougainville and other countries are still in communication.